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Uremia

1.What is uremia?
Uremia is the end-stage of chronic renal failure.It is not a independent disease,it is a clinical syndrome with all kinds of end-stage kidney disease.It is a syndrome consist of a series of clinical manifestations that chronic renal failure develop into the end-stage.
2.What are the symptoms of uremia?
1)Metabolic acidosis. It can cause uremic acidosis with the acatharsia of acid products that the human body etabolizes like phosphoric acid,sulfuric acid during uremia time.Most patients have less symptoms with mild chronic acidosis,shows with obvious inappetence,vomiting,deep breath and so on.
2)Water and sodium metabolize mussily,shows as retention of water and sodium,or hypovolemia and hyponatremia.With renal insufficiency, kidney excess sodium overload capacity or ability to adapt gradually declined.
3)Cardiovascular disease is a major complication of CKD patients and the most common cause of death.Patients with renal failure can cause heart failure,arrhythmia and impaired myocardium with renal hypertension,acidosis,hyperpotassemia,retension of water and sodium,anemia,and the effect of toxicant.Can also cause sterile with the stimulation of carbamide(or uric acid).
4)The gas that the patient exhales have a smell of urine,this is because the bacterium resolve the carbamide in the saliva,then form into ammonia.It appears shortness of breath with excess humoral,also have a deep and slow breath with acidosis.Excess humoral and cardiac insufficiency can cause pneumonedema or hydrothorax.
5)For the patients with uremia the earliest symptoms of digestive system is anepithymia and dyspepsia,it will appears apocleisis,nausea,vomit and diarrhea.
6)Most patients have mild anemia or moderate anemia,because the scarce erythropoietin,so it is called renal anemia;It can make anemia worse with iron-deficiency,malnutrition,bleed.The platelet functions is unusual with the end-stage CFR patients,may will bleed.
3.How to prevent uremic?
The most care and also biggest headaches for the patients with uremia is the prevention of uremia.In fact,the uremia can be avoided,but the patients didn't take enough precaution in the early time,also have no scientific control measures after morbidity.especially patients have no realization of preventing uremia in daily life.The prevention of uremia is as follows.
1)Patients must value in their thoughts.
It is very important for the prevention of uremia to pay more attention to diet,rest and cares.
2)Control the diseases effectively which can cause uremia.
I People generally believe chronic renal lesions is potential progressive development,often is irreversible.And in one phase,it may be progressive development and aggravate.But if have a reasonable treatment in the early time,can delay the progress of disease,and reduce the incidence of uremia.
II It is important to detect the kidney disease,so that to prevent it develop into uremia. The symptoms after the kidney is damaged,is difficult to associate with kidney disease,such as fatigue,gastrointestinal discomfort,mild hypertension,anemia,menstrual irregularity etc.Once the body appears these symptoms,some people will blame the pressure is too great,life is too nervous;and some other people which care to maintain their body maybe go to see the doctor,but also the wrong way,then the exception of kidney function is often ignored.
3)Have the urinalysis test regularly is the best way to diagnose and prevent uremia.
4)The importance of early manifestations and symptoms of uremia, is particularly important for the prevention and treatment of uremia. Uremia is also less obvious,Most of the symptoms is no related to the kidney,or some of them is not obvious.People maybe have the problem of hypertension at beginning.The symptoms is anorexia,nausea,especially can not eat stodge,even can vomit while drinking water;weak,easy to be tired,drowsiness;nocturia increased and frequency of urinatior;sometimes have the feeling with vomiting and diarrhea,although can not exhaust anything;skin is itching,tongue is numb;edema and so on.

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Xu Qing xuan. M.D.

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