Due to pathogenesis, renal edema is divided into nephritic edema and nephrotic edema.
Nephritic edema is mainly found in acute nephritis, some acute rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, chronic nephritis, and other glomerular disease.
Reasons for nephritic edema
Glomerular filtration rate decrease. Therefore, water and sodium deposit in body, which causes edema.
Imbalance between renal tubules and glomerulus
When there appears acute inflammation, GFR decreases obviously but reabsorption of renal tubules remains well. It causes imbalance between renal tubules and glomeruli, which leads to edema.
Capillary hydrostatic pressure increases, which makes the fluid inside the capillaries flow into issues. Therefore, it results in edema.
With acute nephritis, some patients suffer congestive heart failure due to blood volume increase and hypertension, which aggravates the retention of water and sodium.
Nephrotic edema usually caused by primary glomerular disease or nephrotic syndrome induced by various factors.
Causes of nephrotic edema
Decrease of plasma colloid osmotic pressure
Abundant protein loss leads to hypoproteinemia, which causes the decrease of plasma colloid osmotic pressure. Accordingly, capillary fluid filtration increases, which decreases the reabsorbed fluid from tissues. Then edema appears.
Decrease of effective blood volume
Plasma exosmosis decreases effective blood volume, which stimulate intravascular volume receptor, activate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increase antidiuretic hormone secretion, and reduce natriuretic hormone secretion. All the factors increase the sodium reabsorption by renal tubules, which aggravates the retention of water and sodium and increases edema.
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