Urine change is a sign of kidney disease. Urine tests help diagnose the damage degree of kidney function. In general, there are 12 indexes in the test to show the condition.
Urinary total protein (U-TP)
It presents the amount of protein in urine. When U-TP is higher than 150mg/L, it indicates kidney problem.
Urinary microalbumin (U-malb)
Microalbumin is a hint of early damages of glomerular mechanical barrier. The normal level of microalbumin is less than 30mg/L.
Urinary retinol binding protein (U-TRF)
U-TRF shows the early damages of glomerular charge barrier. The normal level is less than 1.9mg/L.
Urinary immunoglobulin G (U-IgG)
Glomerular filtration membrane damages present large amount of U-IgG. The normal reference is Umalb less than 8.8mg/L.
Urinary β2-Microalbumin (Uβ2-M)
β2-microalbumin is a tumor maker for certain blood cell cancers. It is also used to detect kidney damage and distinguish between glomeruluar and tubular disorders.
It is an index to show the working condition of renal tubules.
It shows the post renal proteinuria.
Light chain γ and light chain κ
Light chain γ and light chain κ are the maker of prerenal proteinuria, which presents light chain disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (U-NAG)
Urinary concentration of NAG is an important index to show the function of renal tubules.
Urinary Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (U-GGT)
It has the same function like U-NAG.
Urinary Osmotic Pressure
It is a sensitive index to show the concentration and dilution function of renal tubules.
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