Urine test is used to check different components of urine and waste product made by kidneys. A regular urine test help find the cause of symptoms. The test can show information health and problems you may have.
More than 100 different items can be done from urine. Routine urine test often includes the following tests.
Color, fluid balance, medicine and disease are related. How dark or light the color tells you how much water in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown.
Clarity. Urine is clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look muddy.
Odor. Urine does not smell strong. Some diseases cause a change in odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor.
Specific gravity. This stands the amount of substances in urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine.
PH. pH is a measure of how acidic or alkaline the urine is. 4 strongly acidic, 7 neutral and 9 strongly alkaline.
Protein. Protein is normally can’t be found in urine, especially kidney disease, may cause protein in urine.
Glucose. Glucose is the type of sugar found in blood. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine. Glucose can also be found in urine when the kidneys are damaged.
Nitrites. Bacteria that cause a urinary tract infection make an enzyme that changes urinary nitrates to nitrites.
Leukocyte esterase (WBC esterase).
Ketones. body makes substances called ketones. These are passed in the urine. Large amounts of ketones in the urine may mean a very serious condition, diabetic ketoacidosis, is present. A diet low in sugars and starches, starvation, or severe vomiting may also cause ketones in urine.
Crystals. Healthy people often have only a few crystals in their urine. A large number of crystals, or certain types of crystals, may mean kidney stones are present.
Bacteria, yeast cells, or parasites. There are no bacteria, yeast cells in urine normally. If these are present, mean you have infection.
Squamous cells. These cells do not mean there is a medical problem, but your doctor may ask that you give another urine sample.
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