B ultrasonic test is divided into ordinary B ultrasonic test, color B ultrasonic test, three-dimensional B ultrasonic test, and four-dimensional B ultrasonic test. It can show various clear section pictures of many organs. The picture is close to the anatomical structure. Accordingly, B ultrasonic test is used to make early diagnosis.
Applications in kidney disease
1. Checking the size and location of kidney
Normal size of kidney (length*weight*thickness)
Left: (10.26±0.06)×(4.45±0.05)×(4.75±0.05)cm (male)
Right: (10.16±0.06)×(4.21±0.05)×(4.54±0.04)cm (male)
Right: (9.85±0.11)×(4.06±0.06)×(4.43±0.06)cm (female)
For persons above 80 years old, the long diameter of kidney is 1cm shorter than that of the youth.
Kidney shrink means renal long diameter is shorter than 9cm.
Kidney atrophy refers to renal long diameter less than 7cm.
Kidney expansion is renal long diameter longer than 12.5cm.
From the size of kidney, we can judge whether kidney disease is chronic or acute. For example, kidney expansion usually indicates acute kidney disease. However, certain chronic kidney diseases also show the expansion of kidney size, such as chronic obstructive renal failure accompanying hydronephrosis, renal tuberculosis pus kidney, middle or end stage of renal tuberculosis, and multiple myeloma kidney impairment.
Decreased kidney size usually indicates end stage of bilateral diffuse lesion of the renal parenchyma like chronic glomerulonephritis, unilateral renal vascular lesions, and unilateral kidney dysplasia. The changes of kidney location attributes to finding out nephrospasis and ectopical kidney.
2. Determine the attribute of renal mass
B ultrasonic test judges whether the mass is cystic or substantive. The accuracy rate of diagnosis of renal cyst and polycystic kidney disease reaches 100%. Besides it is more sensitive than intravenous urography to find out cyst bigger than 5mm.
The accuracy rate of diagnosis reaches 90%. Uniliteral hydronephrosis is usually found in ureterostenosis, stone, tumor, and ipsilateral ureteral lesions. Biliteral hydronephrosis is often caused by bladder or urethra obstruction.
4. Judge the transplanted kidney function
If the transplanted kidney expands suddenly, it shows acute rejection reaction. When there is serum creatinine increase and kidney shrink at the late period of transplantation, it shows kidney atrophy.
5. Renal biopsy positioning
Help make a proper puncture point and the depth of inserting needle.
6. Renal B ultrasonic test has a high rate of false positive for the diagnosis of kidney stone. The diagnosis of kidney tumor or renal tuberculosis is for reference only. Even if renal B ultrasonic test shows normal, the existence of renal tuberculosis still remains.
7. Residual urine volume in bladder
Take B ultrasonic test immediately after urination, which can calculate the residual urine volume in bladder. It helps make a diagnosis of neurogenic bladder. The normal level of residual urine volume is 0-36mL. Although full bladder shows space occupying lesion by B ultrasonic test, it has a poor sensitivity and specificity.
Attentions before taking B ultrasonic test
1. Take food which is easy to digest the night before the test. Avoid water and food on the morning of the test day.
2. For spleen, liver, and kidney B ultrasonic test test, there is no need for special preparation. But it is better to take the test without taking food.
3. Take the test before or 3 days after x-ray imaging of gastrointestinal tract and biliary tract.
4. If it needs to diagnose whether the lesion is in pelvic cavity, keep bladder full before the test.
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