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Nephritis

1.What is nephritis?
Glomerulonephritis is non suppurative inflammatory lesions of the both kidneys.Nephritis is one of the most common kidney disease.The symptoms like edema,hypertension,proteinuria and many others appear with the damage of the glomerulus.There are many kinds of nephritis,like:acute nephritis,chronic nephritis,pyelonephritis,latent glomerulonephritis,anaphylactic purpura nephritis,lupus nephritis.
2.The symptoms of nephritis:
1)Prodrome. Most patients have pioneer infection history one month before the onset.
2)Onset. Most begin with oliguria,or gradually less urine,even anuria.Also can be accompanied with hematuria,with different duration.But the routine urine change is basically with acute glomerulonephritis while microscopic hematuria is continuous.
3)Edema. About half of the patients appeared with edema at the beginning of oliguria,it is serious with face and legs.It is difficult to fade away once edema appears.
4)Hypertension. Some patients with hypertension while onset,or after onset.It is persistent and difficult to fall down once blood pressure increased.5)Renal Dysfunction. The persistent increasing is the characteristic of the disease.Glomerular filtration rate and Renal tubular dysfunction exists at the same time.
3.The tests:
1)Routine Urianlysis.
2)Blood routine examination. Acute nephritis may be accompanied by mild anemia,as a general rule hemachrome is higher than 10g/100ml,the number of white blood cell is normal.But during the early time of streptococcal infection,white blood cells may increase,neutral classification rises,erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) boosts,is 30-60mm/h.
3)Renal Function Tests. For most patients,the rate of Sexual creatinine clearance may decreases,creatinine and urea nitrogen increases.But it can get right quickly after treatment.
4)Ultrasonic B and CT test. The kidney volume increased for some patients.
5)Other special test.
4.Treatment:
1)Treatment of edema. It is no need to have a treatment for the mild edema nephritis patients,it can disappear with salt limited and rest.But for the significant edema patients should have a treatment with medicine.
2)Stay in bed. It is very important for the patients to have rest in bed.Patients can have a walk when the edema disappears and the blood pressure decreases,but don't increase activity abruptly.
3)Anti-infective therapy. The nephritis patients which are in the acute phase with infected area must be given enough anti-infection therapy.4)The treatment of hypertension and heart failure. The nephritis patients with hypertension should have conventional therapy.For the nephritis patients with heart failure,because there is the problem of hypervolemia,with the acute nephritis,the importance of the treatment is to clear the water、sodium retention,reduce blood volume.
5)Food and Water. The intake of moisture is depend on the degree of Vol、edema and hypertension.The intake of salt should limited at about 2g/d.
6)Anticoagulant therapy. It is contribute to the remission of nephritis.

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