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Kidney insufficiency

1.What is kidney insufficiency?
kidney insufficiency is caused by many factors,glomerulus are damaged seriously, make the body of clinical syndrome disorder occurs in the excretion of metabolic waste and the regulation of water and electrolyte, acid-base balance of the group after.It can be divided into acute kidney insufficiency and chronic kidney insufficiency.The prognosis is severe,is one of the main disease that may threat to the life.
2.What cause the kidney insufficiency?
1)Kidney disease:such as glomerulonephritis,nephropyelitis,nephrotuberculosis,acute glomerular degeneration and necrosis,kidney tumor,congenital kidney disease an so on. 2)Outside kidney disease:such as systemic blood circulation obstacle(shock,heart failure,high blood pressure),systemic metabolic disturbance(diabetes) and urinary tract disorders(lithangiuria,oncothlipsis) and so on.
3.What are the symptoms of kidney insufficiency?
1)The first phase
The period of kidney reserve compensatory.Because the kidney reserve compensatory capacity is strong,therefore renay function subsides,but the discharge metabolites also can meet the normal requirements,The kidney function test is normal,sometimes is higher.
2)The second phase
The period of kidney insufficiency.Most of the glomerulus,is 60-75%.Creatinine and urea nitrogen is high or above the normal.Patients appears anemia,lassitube,weight reduction,lack of concentration and so on.But also be ignored.It will appear obvious symptoms if there is infection,bleed etc.
3)The third phase
kidney failure stage.About 75-95% kidney function has been damaged,it can not keep the homeostasis,the symptoms of tired,malaise,lack of concentration is severe,obvious anemia,nocturia increased,serum creatinine and urea nitrogen increase obviously,often with acidosis.
4)The forth phase
The uremia stage.About 95% glomerulus has been damaged,has severe symptoms as severe nausea,vomiting,oliguria,edema,malignant hypertension,severe anemia,pruritus.
4.How to prevent kidney insufficiency for the olds?
With the rapid growth of the olds,the number of old people with chronic kidney insufficiency is increasing.The illness has developed rapidly,more complications,high morbidity.It mostly strick with the 60-year-old people.As we grow older,small arteries are become harder gradually.While people with hypertension,chronic glomerulonephritis,diabetic nephropathy,obstructive nephropathy,chronic pyelonrphritis,polycystic kidney,kidney cancer,prostate cancer,can aggravate glomerular sclerosis,then cause chronic kidney insufficiency.So it is a very important thing to protect the kidneys.
1)First it is necessary treat primary disease,such as high blood pressure,diabetes to prevent kidney artery and the deterioration of the glomerular sclerosis.
2)Patients should control the infection actively,especially urinary tract infection and respiratory tract infection.
3)The diet should be high heat,high quality and low protein,low-phosphorous with essential amino-acid,appropriate vitamin,mineral substance and microelement.
4)Avoid to have a cold,be wetting,do not have medicine that hurt the kidneys.
5.The daily care of kidney insufficiency? First of all the patients with kidney insufficiency should strengthen self-health,do some physical exercise.Have a timely treatment for upper respiratory infection,treat the primary disease,diabetes,systemic lupus erythematosus,high blood pressure and so on,also prevent the damage from medicine.
Should pay more attention to the changes on the body,such as edema,high blood pressure,fever,weak,loss of appetite,anemia,if have the symptoms,people should do blood analysis,urine analysis,kidney function test,even kidney puncture biopsy and kidney imaging examination.

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Xu Qing xuan. M.D.

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